The Institute for Environment and Sustainability hosts a large number of data portals and unique scientific databases. Find below a short description of the most relevant public data portals and databases with their respective links:
The INSPIRE Geoportal is Europe's Internet access point to the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE). The Geoportal is established on standards and specifications from European, international and industry consensus-building processes. Where appropriate and possible, the Geoportal will link to national portals and to sector-specific data and services. All connections to services in the Member States, Accession Countries and participating organisations are based on these standards and specifications. The Geoportal does not store or maintain the data. These are distributed in many national and thematic servers across Europe. Each server is maintained by the organisation responsible for the data. The Geoportal publishes and provides access to metadata and data, and facilitates the delivery, display and analysis of geographic information. The user can discover and view the maps of his/her choice letting the Geoportal contact the necessary servers and combine the data.
The CID (Community Image Data) Portal is an online catalogue and archive of satellite remote sensing data and derived products hosted at the JRC. The portal contains the imagery data of several JRC Units, with datasets from more than 20 different satellites and resolutions ranging from 1 km to 0.5 m. The main entry point to the portal is via a Web application through which the archive catalogue data can be searched, viewed and accessed. Data can be accessed via OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) web services and direct file access, depending on the user credentials. Most of the datasets can be freely searched and previewed by the public. Access to the image data via the data services application is restricted to authorised and registered users.
The European Soil Portal is an integral part of the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC) and brings together relevant data and information regarding soils at the European level. It gives access to many soil datasets of which the European Soil Database is the flagship product. It features the European Soil Map Viewer through which online access and display of key soil datasets is available. It also serves to promote the activities of the European Soil Bureau Network. The spatial data in the portal are organised according to the specifications of the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) Directive.
This first test version of a European Drought Observatory provides European-wide data on drought relevant products such as precipitation, soil moisture, and photosynthetic activity of the vegetation cover. Continuous simulations within the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) produce daily soil moisture maps of Europe. This information provides an instantaneous image of the current modelled situation of the water content. Meteorological input information is derived from measured and spatially interpolated meteorological point data provided by the JRC Institute for Protection and Security of the Citizen. Due to the reception via the Global Telecommunication System of the World Meteorological Organization and further processing the data received is typically one to two days old. Information on soil moisture is presented in the form of soil suction (pF) values that commonly range between 1.0 for very wet conditions up to 5.0 for very dry soils. The pF value describes the force which plants must apply in order to extract water from the soil. Precipitation is presented in the form the Standardised Precipitation Index, representing the deviation of the actual amount of precipitation over a given period as compared to the statistically expected amount. Data on the photosynthetic activity of the vegetation is provided by the FAPAR data portal described below.
The JRC developed the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). EFFIS aims to provide relevant information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe, addressing pre-fire and post-fire conditions. On the pre-fire phase, EFFIS is focused on the development of systems to provide forest fire risk forecast and of new integrated forest fire risk indicators. Currently, the dynamic forest fire risk forecast indices are available on the EFFIS website and sent to the Member States Services daily from the 1st of May until the 31st of October each year. On the post-fire phase, EFFIS focuses on estimating the annual damage caused by forest fires in southern EU.
The Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) is an indicator of the state and productivity of vegetation and has been recognized as a fundamental surface parameter for environmental studies by international organizations, like the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). This quantity represents the fraction of the solar energy which is absorbed by vegetation and therefore plays the role of a battery during the plant photosynthetic process. The JRC FAPAR product can be used either as a high-performance indicator of the presence and state of the vegetation cover, or as a quantitative estimate of one of the main factors controlling its productivity. JRC-IES aims to develop the mathematical algorithms to retrieve this fundamental quantity from space remote sensing data and to deliver high level products to the scientific community.
The Environmental Marine Information System (EMIS) offers the possibility of providing spatial and temporal information supporting the assessment and monitoring of European regional seas like eutrophication indicators and related physical and biological marine variables (e.g. sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration, mixed layer depth, primary production, etc.) derived from satellite remote sensing and/or numerical modelling. The information system provides a wide set of tools which allows the user to navigate, browse and interrogate the map in different ways. This allows the users to perform their own assessment of the status and trends in the European regional seas or in a marine sub-area of their choice. The further developments of the system will also seek synergies with the advancements of the marine component of the Water Information System for Europe (WISE).
The Global Marine Information System (GMIS) has been developed to provide the user community with an appropriate set of bio-physical information for conducting global water quality assessment and resource monitoring of coastal and marine waters. The GMIS consists of simple and easy-to-use mapping tool applications, created for the publication and dissemination of marine information via the web. The bulk of environmental analysis in the GMIS relies on Earth Observation data from optical and infrared satellite-based sensors. The satellite products are retrieved using standard in-house peer-reviewed algorithms, which have been implemented in a fully operational processing chain for applications in the global ocean and African-Caribbean-Pacific (ACP) Group of States.
The Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA) is a set of distributed databases that are combined with open, interoperable web services to provide a large variety of end-users with means to assess, monitor and forecast the state and pressure of protected areas at the global scale. It was created as a component of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) by the JRC in collaboration with international organisations including the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), Birdlife International and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB). DOPA is also a contribution to the biodiversity arm of the Global Earth Observation System of System of Systems (GEOSS).
The European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN) was launched in September 2012. This network, the first of its kind in Europe, aims to improve access to data and information regarding alien species in Europe. EASIN is designed to assist policy makers and scientists in their efforts to tackle Alien (non-native) Species invasions. It allows users to explore information on the currently reported 16,000 alien species from distributed online resources.
The Ocean Colour Portal is an archive of ocean-colour derived products for the European seas, over the geographical domain 40W-55E, 10N-80N, and the global oceans. The datasets include spectra of marine reflectance, concentrations of chlorophyll-a, coefficients of diffuse attenuation, inherent optical properties (absorption and back-scattering coefficients), aerosol optical thickness and photosynthetically available radiation. Global primary production distributions are also computed from these datasets. The products are useful for monitoring water quality and marine ecosystem dynamics, and for the study of biogeochemical cycles. The marine reflectance is also considered to be an Essential Climate Variable. The time series of daily, 8-day and monthly maps are derived from the SeaWiFS and MODIS space sensors since September 1997. The website illustrates this database with maps of chlorophyll-a concentrations for specific regions covering the European Atlantic sector from the Arctic to the Cape Verde Islands, the North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, and the global oceans.
The AFOLU DATA portal is a collection information on datasets and tools of relevance for terrestrial ecosystem modelling and for reporting emissions and sinks of terrestrial greenhouse gases in Europe. It is used to distribute spatial data from research projects (e.g. NitroEurope Integrated Project, ECLAIRE) and of relevant IES datasets (e.g. Forest Yield Tables, Tree Species Distribution, Biomass Compartments and Expansion Factors, National Forest Inventories, Agricultural Land Use, Agricultural Nitrogen Budgets at high spatial resolution).
The Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides data on global past and present anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants by country on a spatial grid. The current development of EDGAR is a joint project of the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Previous versions of EDGAR have been widely used by the global scientific community for more than 15 years due to their consistent global coverage and the spatial allocation of country and sector emissions. In EDGARv4.0, emissions are spatially allocated on detailed geospatial maps (0.1 degree) using the exact location of energy and manufacturing facilities, road networks, shipping routes, human and animal population density and agricultural land use. The resolution of 0.1 degree has been selected so that local, regional and global models can use the same emission dataset. The dataset provides an unique insight into the emissions of both developed and developing countries.
The European FLOODS Portal brings together information on river floods and flood risk in Europe.
The portal is the result of ongoing research activities carried out as part of the IES' FLOODS Action at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, combined with local public information provided by EU Countries.
The European Forest Data Center (EFDAC) has been developed following the Technical Arrangement that was signed by the Group of 4 (DG ENV, DG ESTAT, JRC, and EEA) in 2005. EFDAC is the central point for policy-relevant forest data and information. It provides access to web-based forest information systems and related forestry databases, tools and publications, as well as ongoing and foreseen EU forest regulations.
FOODSEC regularly receives daily, 10-daily and monthly outputs of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global circulation models.
All the data aggregated for 10-days periods (dekads) can be downloaded from this website. The original global data ERA 40 (at 1 degree resolution, time series from 1979 to 2002), ERA INTERIM (at 0.25 degrees resolution, time series from 1989 to 2010) and OPERATIONAL (at 0.25 degrees resolution, from 2011 on) are preprocessed by Meteoconsult. Additional parameters are calculated, such as global radiation and evapotranspiration.
The I&CLC2000 (IMAGE2000 and CLC2000) project is a joint project between the European Environment Agency and the Joint Research Centre for the updating of the European Land Cover database (CORINE Land Cover). It provides a snapshot of Europe for the year 2000 (CLC2000), using Landsat 7 imagery to create the multi-purpose spatial reference of Europe (IMAGE2000). From this site, you can access the archive of imagery from the Image2000 project. As a registered user, you will be able to download via ftp the individual scenes you select, which can then be used in your own application.
The River and Catchments database for Europe (CCM - Catchment Characterisation and Modelling) is a database of European river networks and catchments, that facilitates sustainable management of water and land resources.
The importance of drainage networks and associated drainage basins has been recognised in European legislation such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Comprehensive digital data about river networks, drainage basins (catchments) and their characteristics are required in order to study the underlying processes and cause-effect relationships at regional to European scales. The JRC's CCM activity responds to this need by developing of a pan-European database of river networks and catchments. The first version of CCM was published in 2003, with substantial updates in 2007 (version 2.0) and 2008 (version 2.1). This product is based on elevation data derived from the 100-metre resolution SRTM data source. They provide a first comprehensive European dataset of comparable quality from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains and from the North Cape to the Mediterranean. The CCM portal allows you to download the datasets and extensive documentation on its development and characteristics.
The Global Land Cover 2000 Database shows for the first time ever the complete land cover of the entire planet with a 1-km resolution. The project was carried out in collaboration with over 30 research teams from around the world. Each defined region was mapped by local experts, which guaranteed an accurate classification, based on local knowledge. Following an easy registration procedure the data can be downloaded free of charge.
Over large regions of the globe, fires are known to contribute significantly to the injection of gases and aerosols into the atmosphere, and to be a major disturbance to the vegetation cover. The scientific community and policy makers need reliable and quantitative information on the magnitude and spatial distribution of the burning of biomass. The Global Burnt Area 2000 Database provides maps and statistics of the global burnt area for the year 2000, using 1-km resolution satellite imagery provided by the SPOT-Vegetation satellite system. Regional and global products for the year 2000 as well as monthly products can be downloaded free of charge. GBA2000 products can be viewed through an Internet Map Server hosted by UNEP, which provides the possibility to zoom into particular areas.
The LOPEX database was established by the JRC in 1993 and has been used by researchers throughout the world for almost two decades. In order to have a wide range of variation of leaf internal structure, pigmentation, water content and biochemical components, plant species with different types of leaves were collected during two separate periods in the summer of 1993. About 70 leaf samples, which are representative of more than 50 species, were obtained from trees, crops and plants in the area of the JRC, Ispra, Italy. The biochemical constituents of interest in this experiment were lignin, proteins (nitrogen), cellulose and starch, as well as chlorophyll and foliar water. The major processes involved in the terrestrial ecosystem such as photosynthesis, primary production, or foliar decomposition can be related to these constituents.
LOPEX'93 User Guide (pdf file, 324Kb)